Q: Does brushing the teeth using a toothbrush and toothpaste break one’s fast?
A: No, it does not break the fast, provided that one does not intentionally swallow some of the paste.
Q: Is it permissible for a person to perform any recommended fasting before performing the obligatory fasting he has missed in the previous months of Ramadan?
A: It is impermissible for a person who is due to make up for any obligatory fasting on his behalf to perform recommended fasting.
Q: Should a pregnant woman fast during the month of Ramadan or not?
A: If fasting harms her or affects her pregnancy, in a way that makes her fear for her pregnancy, then she is allowed not to fast and she has to make up for it and give out a Fidya (compensation).
Q: Is it permissible for he who is making up for missed fasting to break his fast in the afternoon; what is the ruling if he breaks his fast?
A: It is impermissible for he who is making up for missed fasting to break his fast in the afternoon; if he breaks his fast intentionally, then he ought to pay a Kaffaraha by feeding ten poor individuals, and if it was unintentional, then nothing is incumbent on him and he should make up for the missed fasting on another day.
Q: Is it permissible to fast the whole of the months of Rajab, Sha‘aban and Ramadan consecutively?
A: It is permissible, knowing that it is recommended to fast during the months of Rajab and Sha‘aban.
Q: Is it permissible for a person to perform any recommended fasting before performing the obligatory fasting she/he has missed in the previous months of Ramadan?
A: This is not accepted, and s/he has to perform the missed obligatory fasting first.
Q: What is the time limit during which one can recite the intention of fasting, whether to make up for any missed fasting (Qadha’) or to perform recommended fasting?
A: In the Qadha’ fasting, the time limit for reciting the Niyyah extends until before the Duhr (noon) Adhan, while in the recommended fasting, the time limit extends until before sunset.
Q: What is the reality concerning the invitation of Imam As-Sadiq (PBUH) for somebody to break a recommended fast?
A: The main thing about it is the tradition of Imam As-Sadiq (PBUH) that recommends the one who is performing a recommended fasting to accept the invitation of a fellow Muslim to break his fast, knowing that Allah would grant the one who breaks his fast the reward of fasting, for he has accepted the invitation of his Muslim brother.
Q: If someone was invited to break his fast in a month other than Ramadan, does he receive the same reward of fasting if he broke his fast?
A: This is true if one’s fasting was recommended, and he receives the same reward of fasting if he answers the invitation of his fellow Muslim brother.
Q: If the Mukallaf makes the intention to perform recommended fasting, but during the day he remembers that he still has some fasting days he has to make up for (Qadha’), is he allowed to change his intention to perform the Qadha’?
A: He should change his intention if he remembers so before noon; if not, it is considered as recommended.
Q: Is the intention of recommended fasting deemed valid if it is made just before sunset?
A: The time of the intention of the recommended fasting remains open until before sunset; i.e. just before the sun’s disc disappears, if the Mukallaf had not consumed what could break his fast.
Travelling During Fasting
Q: How should one calculate the ten days s/he intends to stay at a certain place in terms of their beginning and end?
A: What is meant by the ten days are ten days with nine nights included within, and they are the nights between the first and the last day. The day commences at the break of dawn, so the intention to stay in a certain country from the break of dawn of the first day of the month, for example, until the sunset of the tenth day is regarded as Iqamah (staying in one place for ten days). However, if one makes the intention for the Iqamah during the day, whether in the morning, noon or afterwards, s/he has to stay for the same part of the starting day; i.e. if s/he made the intention in the morning, s/he has to stay until the morning of the tenth day and so on. Moreover, the stay should be continuous in the same country. Thus, if one travels to another country, or s/he is not sure that s/he will stay for ten days, then s/he has not met the requirements of the Iqamah, so all its rulings would not apply to this case.
Q: Is it necessary as a condition for the permissibility of breaking the fast by the traveller to maintain for sure the intention of travelling?
A: It is not a condition, and even if one had not made at night the intention of travelling, and s/he had to travel before noon and s/he did travel then s/he can break his fast.
Q: When is the traveller who has to break his/her fast for travelling allowed to break his/her fast?
A: Such traveller is allowed to break his/her fast after reaching Had- At-Tarakhus (the place where the traveller gets so far away from the houses of his/her town or city in a way that if someone views him/her from that town or that city will not recognise him/her anymore). Notably, s/he is not allowed to break his/her fast in his/her homeland if s/he wants to travel.
Q: Is the traveller allowed to remain willingly fasting after passing Had At-Tarakhus; the point from which the traveller is allowed to break his/her fast?
A: If s/he passes Had At-Tarakhus and s/he was intending to cover the distance that requires breaking the fast, then s/he is not allowed to continue fasting, and s/he should make up for this day.
Q: When is a person considered to be someone who travels a lot?
A: The one who is meant by travelling a lot is the person who repeats his/her travel at least four times in a month, whether for work, studies or other purposes.
Q: Is it permissible for someone who is fasting to cover a certain distance for the sole purpose of breaking his/her fast intentionally, knowing that s/he covers the distance by car and without any hardship?
A: It is permissible for a person who is fasting to travel intentionally, even if it is not necessary, and s/he can break his/her fast. The allowance of breaking one’s fast while travelling is not related to the hardships of travel; but rather, it is a gift from Allah, the Most Exalted, to the traveller as narrated in traditions.
Q: Why should the traveller break his/her fast after travelling for a certain distance, knowing that travelling these days no longer causes any hardships?
A: Such conditions are parts of the acts of worship that we should abide by. They have nothing to do with getting tired. It has been stated in the Quran as such: “For a certain number of days; but whoever among you is sick or on a journey, then (he shall fast) a (like) number of other days; and those who are not able to do it may effect a redemption by feeding a poor man; so whoever does good spontaneously it is better for him; and that you fast is better for you if you know” (02:184).
Q: Is it permissible for the one travelling to fast?
A: Fasting while travelling is absolutely invalidated, even if the traveller does not eat or drink. However, if the traveller returns to his/her homeland before (zawal) noon without having consumed what could break his/her fast, then s/he can make the intention of fasting and fast on this day. The same ruling applies if s/he reaches his destination before noon and makes the intention of a ten-day stay, then s/he has to make the intention of fasting and fast if s/he had not consumed what could break his/her fast.
Q: When is the traveller allowed to remain to fast, if his/her travel was not for work or s/he does not travel much (at least four times a month)?
A: S/He can fast on the day of his travel, if s/he is able to return to his/her homeland before noon without having broken his/her fast, then s/he should remain fasting if his/her travel started before noon.
Q: Is it permissible for someone to make up for the missed fasting days (qada’) while on travel?
A: No, it is not permissible.
Q: What is the ruling if the one fasting travelled before noon or after noon, and what is the ruling if s/he returned home in both cases?
A: If the one fasting travelled after noon, s/he ought to maintain his fast; whereas, if s/he travelled before noon, s/he ought to break his/her fast. Moreover, on his/her way back; if s/he returned and reached home after noon, then s/he ought to break his/her fast and his/her fasting will not be valid, but if s/he reached home before noon and s/he had not yet consumed what breaks his/her fast then he ought to maintain his/her fast; if s/he had consumed what breaks his/her fast, then his/her fast is deemed invalid.
Q: What is the distance that one should cover to break his fast?
A: It is approximately 44 km either one way or back and forth.
Q: From where do we start calculating the distance of travel?
A: Calculating the travelled distance from the beginning of the journey should start from the last house of the village or city from which one leaves, to the first house of the village or city headed for from the side one enters into it at the end of the journey.